Episode 08: Educational Programs

The mission of the Bickelhaupt Arboretum is to serve as a connection between people and plants in the community, especially when it comes to educating people on the benefits, types, and ways that people can use plants in and around their homes. In this podcast, the Bickelhaupt’s daughter Francie Hill first explains how initially one of the biggest obstacles her parents had with the arboretum, was just educating people about what an arboretum was. She also discusses what her role was in developing some of the initial educational programs that are still in use today. Margo and some of the volunteers that run these programs will talk about their work with these programs, and the many area children that they educate about the plants and environment in the area. 


Ryan Welch: 
Welcome to another in our continuing series of podcasts about the Bicklehaupt Arboretum, located in Clinton, Iowa. The mission of the Bicklehaupt Arboretum is to serve as a connection between people and plants through a better understanding of horticulture, by developing and maintaining a well-documented collection of landscape plants adapted to this region for education and enjoyment. 

Education has always been a centerpiece of the Arboretum, ever since the first collections were planted in 1970. Initially, this education focused mainly on using the collections to show people the diversity and the options that were available to them in terms of woody plants and shrubs that could be used in their areas. 

It soon became clear, though, that other forms of education were needed, but everything from explaining what an arboretum was to helping people better understand their role in the environment in general. This process has evolved a lot since the beginning, from workshops about gardening and pruning given to the general public to the thousands of local elementary children that have gone through educational programs at the arboretum. The Bicklehaupt's daughter, Francie Hill, explains how initially the process of educating people about the Arboretum was one of the biggest obstacles. And she talks about how some of the educational programs that are still in use today have come about. 

Were there any obstacles with this process of developing an arboretum early on? 

Francie Hill: Yes, because the lack of education that they had had. But they went ahead and got some education, not just in Clinton, all of the United States, but you know what I mean? It was environment didn't really mean anything. 

Francie Hill: So that was the biggest obstacle, I think was educating. And we we still had that. 

Ryan Welch: We still do it. It's a huge obstacle. 

Francie Hill: People don't understand and I think that's the biggest obstacle. 

Ryan Welch: Is getting people to realize, you know what what you have said nobody, you know, to this day and time, nobody still knows what an arboretum is in a lot of ways. And their idea of it is much different than what it actually looks. 

Francie Hill: I think the difficulty is when the Botanic Garden is one thing I begin to see exactly and this is what plants as opposed to native plants. And I don't think I've been to I've been to several botanic gardens and they got the orchids and they got a lot of exotics, which is wonderful. 

People look at those and they can look at this. But there's no point looking exotics and thinking you're the and plant them. 

Ryan Welch: Not in your house. 

Francie Hill: No, no, not even in your house. 

Ryan Welch: How do the educational programs develop at the arboretum? 

Francie Hill: They started doing classes at the arboretum. They started first with the Park District because someone said you should get the arboretum to the Park District someday, because that would be a good idea. Well, there's a changing membership because the Park District, I think they vote for him, don't they? 

At that time they were voting for them and there were changes and things like that. Now that's going on. And my dad didn't want to do that. He would keep it going for himself and then see what they would do. 

So I think he felt that he at one point, Dr. Norton, Mr. Nardine said, you should teach classes. He said, I'm not qualified. Yes, you are. Yes, yes. So because his name was kind of well-known, cause he was a car dealer and everything, so he decided that they would go. 

And so they had some classes at the arboretum and they started going to the schools. But education and that was before No Child Left Behind. And so the schools were thrilled about it. 

Ryan Welch: Now, if you go to them at times and I've done this with some teachers or they've come to me and said, Here's my benchmarks, here's my standards, can you develop something that we can do together? And at times I'm like, Oh yeah, here's how I can fit everything that you want to hear into how you want it 

Francie Hill: That time. 

Ryan Welch: Frame, in that time frame and your standards and your benchmarks. So it can be a difficult thing these days with, with the amount of regulations and stuff that are in the schools to try and make it so that, you know, they still want the same thing. 

Ryan Welch: But it's just got to put people in a different box now it seems. 

Francie Hill: Right. So I think the biggest, greatest obstacle going back to it is education. And if that can be done and I know it can be done with Clinton Community College, if that can be done. And I think every mission, every goal, every vision they had would be fulfilled. 

Ryan Welch: Okay 

Francie Hill: With what they do. 

Ryan Welch: So during that whole education process, especially early on or even later on, I guess. What role did you play in it in terms of the planning or the implementing or the developing, if any. 

Francie Hill: Have you heard the story, 

Ryan Welch: Story? No. 

Francie Hill: Okay. So I'm doing a tour one time and I've children and I can't remember where they were from, where they were. The first thing. It was hot, hot day. It was I think it was Park District summer program. 

And I said, you know, we should all just take our shoes off and just feel the grass. And the one girl said, Don't do that, don't do that. Mrs.. And she didn't know my name, Mrs.. Hill. And I said, don't call me Francie. 

Don't do that. You can be poisoned. And I said, Why? And what do you mean? She said, Well, the landlord said we could be poisoned because he sprayed the grass. And I said, Oh, we don't spray the grass here. 

It's okay, really. And so they took the shoes off. So we got to the top of the hill. And I said, So how many of you ever roll down a hill? How do you do it? And I was at the time in my sixties, and so I said, Well, watch. 

And I rolled down. And they thought it was just amazing for me to see that children hadn't had that experience at all. I mean, some children in Clinton live in Clinton have never seen the Mississippi River. I know that's terribly hard to believe. 

Well, I can that's really true. 

Ryan Welch: I can believe it. 

Francie Hill: And so this was it's an outdoor classroom. Yeah. So we started as a protest to No Child Left Behind. I turn it into No Child,I turned it did No Child Left Inside. And that program went for about seven years. 

Even before the pandemic, I think it had to do with funding and the busses and things like that. 

Ryan Welch: The busses always seem to be a big issue. 

Francie Hill: It really and yet the bus drivers loved it off the bus showed it is great. You know, had to remember not to smoke. It was not a smoke break in the parking lot, but. Yeah. And prom after prom years ago, it was trashed. 

Francie Hill: They’d come out to take the pictures and it was trashed. And that was before Instamatic cameras. So it was filmed laying around and everything. And after probably seven or eight years of No Child Left inside, those kids are then, you. 

Ryan Welch: Know, they've grown up. 

Francie Hill: In an ownership. And we went out the one day I wrote a story about it, and all we found was a piece of ribbon and a quarter. I mean, nothing, no damage or anything. And really, we have been very blessed. 

There's been very little damage. The few times that there were a few things that ended up not looking real good the next morning, but we chose not to publicize it because it might give people an idea. But there's been very little vandalism and that's just great for a public area. 

Ryan Welch: And part of that had to do with, you know, education. 

Francie Hill: Yeah, letting children, young people feel empowered. 

Ryan Welch: And so now this is this is part of your community. So why would you want to you know, I won't mess it up. 

Francie Hill: Right? Exactly. 

Ryan Welch:  A majority of the educational programs that occur at the Arboretum have been organized for the past 11 years by Margo Hansen, who was the Director of Programs for the Arboretum. In setting up these programs, her tasks have included planning, organizing and the logistical coordinating with area schools to ensure that many local elementary children have the opportunity to learn more about the plants and the environment at the arboretum. Of course, she would not be able to do all of this if it weren't for the help of an army of volunteers who have dedicated their time and knowledge to this purpose as well. 

Margo, along with the volunteers, Joyce Oley, Raymond Smith and Marion Johnson shared with us some of their insights and the topics they discuss, the obstacles they sometimes come across, information that they share with the people that visit the Arboretum. 

Joyce Oley: School District was very adamant about the fact that we had to teach to the curriculum. 

Ryan Welch:  So they was one of those things where, as you guys developed the program, whereas the program was being developed and updated and things, you would have to have conversations with the teachers and things like. 

Joyce Oley: Well, we, we had to look at what the written curriculum was and go by that. 

Marion Johnson: Okay, you were instrumental in doing a lot of that. Also, we had to talk to the curriculum supervisor a couple of times they came over and because we were teaching fourth grade and they decided that that whatever we were teaching, what was it, Leaves or something, that they were doing something different for fourth grade. 

Marion Johnson: So we could no longer offer No Child Left Inside to fourth graders because our program did not involve what they wanted. What they were learning. 

Ryan Welch: Then didn't cover what they call their standards eventually. 

Margo Hanson: Right. So we dropped the fourth grade and then we picked up kindergarten. So it is kindergarten first. Second and third grade is what we've done in the past. So we invite first and second grade in the spring, second and third in the fall. 

So over the course of the years, if you are in a Clinton school, elementary school, you would come here four times while you're in school. 

Ryan Welch:  Over the course of your time. 

Margo Hanson: Right? Right. So everybody all the all these young people, little people know what an arboretum is. And it's kind of fun because not every community has that opportunity. 

Marion Johnson: And most recently, they also know the word photosynthesis. 

Margo Hanson: Yes. It's a big word for a first grader. 

Ryan Welch:  A big word for first grader. Yes, there are many there are some college students that don't know the word. Despite you telling them over and over. 

Marion Johnson: And that's it. That's it. I mean, that's, that's our whole living, our life inside photosynthesis. 

Joyce Oley: One of one of the bonuses to having the No Child Left inside besides having the kids come, is that some of the schools would invite the parents. And so we'd have a lot of parents coming with us. And it was amazing how many adults said, Oh, I didn't know that. 

And we'd be asking questions to the kids. And the parents would look like, Why? We don't know. I mean. 

Margo Hanson: Or I've never been here and this is for the first time being there. 

Ryan Welch: So it wasn't just a learning experience for the kids. The class is a learning experience for everybody involved kids all through adults, through parents, through whole family units, potentially, depending on who was chaperoning that day and those kind of things. 

Raymond Smith: We have we have groups of like Sarah Harding, it's a retirement center. It's been here. 

Raymond Smith: And a garden club. And, you know, so there's, there's groups other than school groups or school groups.  

Ryan Welch: Yeah. And you have to my guess is when the other groups come that are the school groups, my guess is you don't do the No Child Left Inside. You have different sort of  

Raymond Smith: They kind of have their own questions.  

Ryan Welch: Okay. 

Volunteer:  And it's a basic tour. 

Ryan Welch:  It's a basic tour. 

Volunteer: At one time we had weekend time set up and a volunteer would show up. And if somebody came from the community and wanted to tour, we would give it to them. There was nobody there. We'd go home. 

Raymond Smith: We talk about roots. Well, do you like to eat roots? Oh, no. Don't want to eat roots. And well, do you like carrots? Yeah, I like carrots. And understanding the carrot is a root is something that most kids have no concept of. 

And, you know, they. Oh, what? What color are trees? Well, they're green for the most part. And what does that mean? And then you can get into the idea that we need trees on this earth to provide oxygen and use carbon dioxide, you know, and all that. You know.  

Joyce Oley: Which brings us to the name of the program. The Educational Systems had a program called No Child Left Behind. But then and I forget the author's name, but there was a book called No Child Left Inside saying that outdoor education is not just learning about where our food comes from, but our whole the air we breathe and, you know, everything about our life depends on what's outside the environment. 

Ryan Welch: The ecosystem as a whole 

Joyce Oley: Yes. 

Ryan Welch:  And knowing that we're actually in it, you know, not outside of it. 

Joyce Oley: A lot of children, we're not getting outside, particularly urban children. And so the program, Francie, picked it out after reading the book. And she's, you know, No Child Left Inside. So unless it was raining hard, all the programs were outside. 

And it was it was wonderful. 

Marion Johnson: One of the things that I think is really good about the No Child Left Inside program is that students are exposed to other, other people who are interested in the environment. I mean, and my feeling is children should know what their, what their environment is. 

If you want to say we're trying to save the environment, this is what we're trying to say. Yeah. And this is our here we all are and we're all concerned, you know, all of that, all of the. 

Ryan Welch:  You know, so unless you show them, you know, specifically what is your environment is a very abstract concept. You know in that younger age is also a way that those sorts of things in that kind of knowledge can be built up over time so that as they get older, it's not a new concept to them either it's something that they've been learning about and gaining more knowledge or more detailed knowledge as they get older. 

Margo Hanson: Going back to what Ray had said earlier about walking around and looking at the different trees, you know, what color are trees? They're green. But it goes a little bit further in that these volunteers point out the different kinds of trees. 

So it's not just trees. Trees have names. Trees have sizes and shapes and, and different colors and have different, you know, purposes, maybe a food source for one animal or one bird. They point that out, and maybe some kids hadn't realized that before. 

In addition to that, they point out the difference between deciduous trees and the conifers, the needled plant material versus the, the trees that drop and bushes, that drop their leaves in the fall. So all these things that maybe they'd never heard about or their parents don't talk about is just like, okay, let's go. 

Right. The leaves, well, they don't really understand that that's part of a classification, but that trees have names and they do have different characteristics, just like people. A lot of those things that we take for granted are pointed out to these students and it's light bulb goes off in in their head and it's like, Oh, that's cool. 

Ryan Welch:  They start looking at their surroundings in a much different way. Now they become more familiar with what is actually there compared to just the tree. They kept walking by every day. 

Margo Hanson: And even though we're, we're an arboretum and we focus on Woody plant material, there are still birds flying over. Or you can hear the birds singing. You can see little fish or turtles or frogs in the creek that runs through. 

And even the clouds and the insects and the butterflies and just all of that in one big package here at the arboretum, it just makes it whole. And back to what Marion said, that's our environment and that's what we're trying to save. 

And that's just a very important point that she brought up. 

Raymond Smith:I think one of the exciting things, too, is the butterfly garden.  

Marion Johnson: Oh, yeah.  

Raymond Smith: And you know, the monarch butterfly has been always kind of an emphasis here. And to realize that the monarch butterfly will, as a species, travels all the way to Mexico. 

I mean, kids just have no idea. Yeah. That those sort of things happen. You know, what happens in the winter time, you know, just the whole migratory.  

Ryan Welch: The whole process nature. Yeah. And it also it happens on many, many levels. 

Ryan Welch: It's not just this large bird like a goose or swan or anything like that is all the way down to the insect level. You've got something moving very large spans in a way that we still in some ways don't understand how it happens, why it happens, how we know the way all these sorts of things and you guys are doing it on a more local level because as you guys have all said, this is the environment they live in. When these when these children are put on these busses and brought here, they're not brought here from across the state. 

They're brought here from 10 minutes away, you know, in a town that they already live in to see all of this stuff that they didn't maybe didn't know was already in in their area. 

Joyce Oley: We should include the Camanche school, schoolchildren. And because we have classes that come from Camanche. 

Ryan Welch:  Are they doing that No Child Left Inside program. So we're not just talking about just all Clinton kids. We're talking Clinton and Camanche. Were there any other school districts that were participating? 

Joyce Oley: No, but we had some home school children once in a while. 

Margo Hanson: And then we do entertain other groups throughout the year. So we have the summer camps that come and we do have other classes and ages that come that get a program kind of tailored to what their needs and what their requests are. 

So we want to fit it to the, to the group that's coming. We did a few times do a scavenger hunt, so that was really fun. And that again was geared toward the age that was coming. One of them that I recall was actually they were given they were in junior high or high school and they were given a map. And it was not only doing the scavenger hunt at the arboretum, but it was following a map and, and map skills. And some of them in in in the world of GPS now, you know, it was a little challenging. 

So it was really fun because they had to figure out the map, north, southeast, West and landmarks and things like that. So that was really fun. And back to No Child Left Inside, Joyce had mentioned parents coming in. 

We had parents and some grandparents come, but it was really fun one day we had a group of No Child Left Inside students come and one of the students grandfathers came and Ray you might have told me this story. 

I don't remember. But they're going around and the volunteer teachers are asking questions to the student as they're going around the arboretum and every time they ask a question, this grandfather would shout out the answer. He was so excited and so happy and had never been here. 

And he had more kids, more fun than the kids. And finally he realized that they were asking the students the questions and he finally caught on. But it was really funny because he was so excited. He just would blurt out the answer every time they ask a question. 

So that made it really fun. It made the event fun and he had a great time. 

Joyce Oley: One of my favorite teaching moments would come when one of the kids would see a bee. Oh, yeah. And the first reaction is, Oh, you know, screaming and running. And, you know, you know, calm down, calm down. We're in the bees home. 

Just calm down. Just let it be, you know? And to think about that, we are the strangers in their, in their environment. 

Ryan Welch:  So you guys mentioned one obstacle you had in some of these educational programs was getting things aligned for the schools because they had the benchmarks, their standards or things like that. And that was one of your big obstacles was when I when I talked to a Francie earlier, she said, yeah, it was a big issue. 

We always had asked, were there any other obstacles, though, that came in in order or challenges with some of these programs that you did in terms of these educational programs, any of them? It could be the ones for kids or even some of the ones that you may have given for adults. 

Margo Hanson: And things like that. I don't know if it's an obstacle, but we there was quite a process to go through to contact all of the teachers, give them all the information, give them the dates, have them get back to us and sign up. 

So when you have that many classes in a certain program, there has to be a lot of coordinating of that. Once we had the classes lined up with the teachers, they had to arrange the bussing and then we had to meet as volunteers this wonderful army of volunteers meet and then the volunteers would select the dates that they could help with the program and be here for the, the students that were coming. So again, it wasn't an obstacle, but it was was kind of a, a challenging and a timeline that we had to really stick to. 

So and we had to check and make sure there was nothing else going on with throughout the school system the two weeks we were going to be doing it. And then of course we had weather issues and canceling and should we have it and so there were the normal things that you would do with any program in getting them lined up. And then you always have new teachers that don't know the ropes and don't know, you know, how it rolls. And then you have the. 

Teachers that come year after year that sign up right away because they really enjoy the program and the work that the wonderful volunteers have done in the past. 

Ryan Welch: So when you put that program on a single day that you know, how many volunteers will you need just for one day? 

Joyce Oley: You need two volunteers per class, once per classroom. I mean. 

Ryan Welch:  Yes. So that's not two volunteers for the whole third grade class, it’s two volunteers for every section, of course. 

Joyce Oley: Correct. Correct. And then we all meet down at the gathering space and we divide them up according to how many volunteers we have. So we often have six volunteers. We do three sections at a time. 

Ryan Welch:  Oh, okay. 

Joyce Oley: And then we have stations out on the grounds and we head for a different place. We all go in different directions and then we'd rotate around and there'd be two stations per lesson. We had roots at one and we'd have leaves at another. 

Margo Hanson: And stems and then the flowers and seeds. 

Joyce Oley: Yeah. And so the curriculum was divided up into three groups and then but they will rotate through all of that and get it all done in an hour. 

Margo Hanson: Right. And they'd have 15 minutes per station. And then there was walking time and, and touring time and talking time and and so it really flowed quite well. They would bunch up once in a while, but, but we managed and it was they were outside. 

They loved all kids, loved field trips. I mean, it was. 

Ryan Welch:  Even when they get older. 

Margo Hanson: Even when they get the whole thing. 

Joyce Oley: At each station, there were artifacts. So we'd have samples of roots and we'd have samples of how the leaves are arranged on a stem. 

Margo Hanson: And one of the really fun parts, I thought, and I'm going to let Marian talk about this were the lima beans and the germinating of seeds in the different parts. So I'm going to let her talk about that process of starting them early. 

And what the kids did with the big lima beans. 

Marion: Germinated light the lima beans and each child got a lime of beans. So we took the seed coat off and then we saw the little bitty plant inside and the garden leaving all that. So that's what we did with the kids so that they had to me, learning from a book is one thing and it's great. 

It is, but hands on in anything in a laboratory or, or that's why they call this a living lab, because you can get hands on to see the seeds. Took a little bit to figure out how to do this so that we had enough because sometimes I had to get 300 seeds. 

Ryan Welch: So. Yeah that a lot of seeds 

Marion: But it was it was worth it when you saw, you know, that they at least this is it. This is how it starts. Yeah. Not just in the book with a picture. And that's how actually one of the ways that this child left, no child left inside got started, because someone I think was Francie's grandson, she was telling him, Oh, that's a part of some, there's something some kid said, Oh, I can get see that on the Internet and you see that? No, no, no. That's not how we get you know, we don't want you just learning stuff from the Internet. 

Ryan Welch: It’s got to be hands. 

Margo Hanson: And one, one thing Marion had to do was she had to count ahead and plan ahead to get the lima bean seeds in the right stage germinated for the class or the day it was coming. And so there was planning and she was diligent. 

Oh, my gosh. She always came through and you know, you have some seeds that don't germanate. So they did share on occasion, but they couldn't wait to, to have their own seed and find that little plant live in the tiny little root inside. 

And they had no clue that that was the beginning of a plant and the whole germination process. So yeah, that was really fun and that was just one of many things. We also one time did a seed collecting portion where we actually put tape on their wrist and it was inside out and they went around and tried to collect different seed on the grounds. Some of one, one portion is how do seeds travel? And so we had, you know, the cockle burrs that that stick and the seeds that roll. And so we had samples of all of those and then they would look for those as they went around the grounds. 

Ryan Welch: And a lot of these things, you know, are all sounds to me like lessons that at the outset, when you first look at it, it's just so simple. That is so you know, I don't know why it is that we didn't think of that before. 

And yet none of them require things like, you know, some very high tech measuring system or any type of electronics or any type of that kind. So I will tell you right now, in many of my college classes, when you mentioned the lima beans and soaking them and looking for Cotyledons, I did that as graduate work in one of my classes. That's what our instructor had us do. And then what she had do is we had to weigh them. We had to talk about them. She was throughout the semester. As we talk about things in physiology, you need to add to this as to, okay, why did this happen? 

How did this happen? And when you're measuring it now, these first couple of weeks, every week after, you better be adding something about this and this and this and this in terms of the physiology of what's happening in that little seed. 

And it takes something that simple and just be able to get that much information out of it. It is really, you know, so we've had No Child Left Inside and say, how long has that program been going on here at the Arboretum? 

Joyce Oley: I think 20 years for the last, for the COVID time. 

Ryan Welch: Sort of the COVID time that's been going on. It was going on for 20 years. 

Margo Hanson: So if you take roughly 20 years, 1500 students a year do the math will have to have to add that and do the math. That's a lot of students. And it's interesting now in talking to people that have jobs and have their own kids, they would say, oh, I remember coming to the Arboretum. 

I remember walking around, we love the waterfall. They all love the waterfall. They love the creek. It's interesting now that their children are coming to the Arboretum for the same class, but it's really great to hear them say, I came here as a student when I was in school at with one program or another. 

Ryan Welch: I get them every once. All right. You know, some of them who do take my classes of the college, I'll say, hey, we're going to the Arboretum. I'll say, Oh, I remember the arboretum. I went there when I was a kid and I did this. 

I did that. Oh, good. Now we're going to look at it from a different perspective here. And, and I do get a lot of kids that I've never been to the Arboretum. This is a good opportunity for you to learn, right? 

Joyce Oley: We really haven't talked about really the major purpose of the arboretum is as a community resource is to show people what grows here in Iowa. It's some wonderful educational thing. And when you look at the sign that's posted by the tree, it will tell you when it was planted. 

So you'll know how big it's going to get before you plant it in your yard. And so for me, this has always been an educational place, not just for kids. 

Marion Johnson: Where we get something that this is a little different from No Child. But we did put together compost so we can make the compost, you know, with the bottle, the, the liter bottle and all the stuff to put in it. 

And then you got the red worms. And of course, you have to talk about the red worms. So we've done that too, as a different type of program. 

Ryan Welch: Different type of program or even workshop. 

Marion Johnson: Yeah. And I think maybe a class would come over or, or did we do that for the Saturday. 

Margo Hanson: Right. So it could have been enviro kids. 

Marion Johnson: Explain what the enviro kids are 

Margo Hanson: Yes, the enviro kids at one time was started through Lyondellbasell and it was for a program that they supported to go around to environmental based businesses and organizations and is set up it's on Saturdays from ten to noon and the arboretum was one of six or seven locations that they go. 

The Isaac Walton League, the Recycle Center, the Felix Adler, Sawmill Museum, and now I'm going to forget somebody. They go to a ballgame. But it's a weekend event for third to fifth graders, and the flier sent out to all the schools in the county. 

Anyone can sign up and then you can go to these. You get a postcard that says when the next event is. 

Ryan Welch: And where it is. 

Margo Hanson: And the arboretum has been with that for many years, maybe ten or 12 years. It just gets kids from all over. And the fun thing is we may have 30 or 40 of those students signed up, but then their little siblings come, their parents come. 

So we can have quite a crowd come all ages and all are welcome because we want, you know, the littlest to the oldest to come to the arboretum, adjust our program to whatever their age, your interest is, and just make it a pleasant experience. 

And it is we have a lot of fun, tour, an educational lesson, and then of course you have to have a little treat at the end. 

Joyce Oley: And it wouldn't be an educational group unless we said the arboretum is open. Yes. During the daylight every day of the year free are free to risk free of charge. 

Ryan Welch: As we can see, the Arboretum continues its mission of educating people about the benefits of plants and their role in the environment. While much of this education can be seen in their No Child Left Inside program, there is no shortage to educational opportunities and events that have and can occur at the arboretum. 

My many thanks to Margo Hanson, Joyce Oley, Raymond Smith and Marion Johnson for sharing their time and insights with me for this podcast, as well as to Otis Welch for the musical selection.